Biodiversity is the diversity of life and nature on Earth. It is at the foundation of human well-being and prosperity.
As defined by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), it is “the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems” (UN, 1992). As such, biodiversity provides us with many essential services, such as climate regulation, cleaning the air, soil formation, pollination, and more.
Today, biodiversity loss – the reduction or disappearance of biological diversity – is a global crisis and one of the most daunting challenges of our era. Many ecosystems are already undergoing irreparable degradation, undermining Nature’s and humans’ capacity to prosper and be resilient.
The primary human-made threats are climate change, pollution, habitat loss (e.g., due to deforestation and other changes in land and sea use), overexploitation of resources (such as overfishing and -hunting), and invasive exotic species.